Kebijakan Pengendalian Diare Berdasarkan Analisis Spacial Faktor Penyebab Diare di Kabupaten Tanah Bumbu

  • DickyAndiarsa Balai Litbang P2B2 Tanah Bumbu
  • Ika Setianingsih Balai Litbang P2B2 Tanah Bumbu
  • Sri Sulasmi Balai Litbang P2B2 Tanah Bumbu
Keywords: Diare, Sanitasi, Akses Air Bersih, PHBS, Geospasial

Abstract

Abstract

The numbers of diarrhea cases in Indonesia generally and Tanah Bumbu District in particularly are still quite high. Limited access to clean water, sanitation, and behavior clean and Healthy Lifestyle (PHBS) are factors that affect the incidence of diarrhea. These three factors are also related to the state of the environment and the local socio-cultural spatially. Therefore the purpose of this study was to identify the factors that cause diarrhea in Tanah Bumbu regency by Geospatial method approach. Cross-sectional study design with observational analytical held for the total sample of 501 households from 6 Primary health care selected, respondents had experienced diarrhea and registered at the local health center. Observations and interview carried out via a questionnaire in order to know the characteristics of respondents, factors environmental sanitation, and PHBS. Examination of water samples carried out to determine the bacteriological contamination. Analyses were performed with Geographical Information System (GIS) approach. The results show that there are differences parents’work, the quality of water resources, usage, and water treatment in cases of diarrhea in the city and village area. The poor of water source (unimproved) is also closely related to that presence of the agent contamination of the water was checked. In all areas of health centers showed that diarrhea can have an impact to nearby settlements in socio-environmental. Based on the map of the area at risk of diarrhea indicates that most areas of the six health centers had high risk zone.

Abstrak

Kasus diare di Indonesia secara umum dan di Kabupaten Tanah Bumbu khususnya masih cukup tinggi. Keterbatasan akses air bersih, sanitasi lingkungan , dan perilaku hidup bersih dan sehat (PHBS) merupakan factor yang mempengaruhi kejadian diare. Ketiga faktor tersebut terkait pula dengan keadaan lingkunagn dan sosial budaya masyarakat setempat secara spasial. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor penyebab diare di Kabupaten Tanah Bumbu dengan pendekatan metode Geospasial. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan observasional analitik dengan desain studi cross-sectional. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 501 rumah tangga dari 6 wilayah kerja puskesmas terpilih. Populasi adalah seluruh masyarakat di 12 wilayah kerja puskesmas di Kab Tanah Bumbu. Responden pernah mengalami diare dan terdaftar di puskesmas setempat. Observasi dengan form observasi dan wawancara menggunakan kuisioner untuk dapat mengetahui karakteristik responden, faktor sanitasi lingkungan, dan PHBS. Pemeriksaan sampel air dilakukan untuk mengetahui cemaran bakteri. Analisis dilakukan dengan pendekatan Sistem Informasi Geografi (SIG). Hasil menunjukan bahwa terdapat perbedaan pekerjaan kepala keluarga, kualitas sumber air, pemakaian dan pengolahan air pada kasus diare yang ada di kota maupun di desa. Kualitas sumber air yang tidak bagus (unimproved) juga berhubungan erat dengan keberadaan agen cemaran pada air yang diperiksa. Semua wilayah puskesmas menunjukan bahwa diare dapat berdampak ke pemukiman terdekat secara socio-enviromental. Berdasarka peta wilayah risiko diare menunjukan bahwa sebagian besar wilayah puskesmas berzona risiko tinggi terhadap kasus diare.

References

Al- Bayyati, Khalidn K, Kadhum H Al-Arajy, and Seba Hussain Al-Nuaemy. 2012. “Bacteriological And Physicochemical Studies on Tigris River Near the Water Purification Stations Within Baghdad Province. “Journal of Environmental and Public Health 2012: 1-8. doi: 10.1155/2012/695253.

Ardiarsa, Dicky, Ika Setianingsih, Dian Eka Setyaningtyas, Syarif Hidayat, Sri Sulasmi, Gusti Meliyanie, Abdullah Fadilly, Erly Hariati,And Dwi Candra Arianti.2016. “Analisis Faktor Penyebab Diare Di abupaten Tanah Bumbu Dengan Pendekatan Geographical Information System (GIS). (Laporan). ”Batulicin.

Baruah, Debojit, Sabita Borah, Lakhi Prasad Hazarika, and Ranjit Dutta. 2011. “A Simple Diagnostic Tool for Measuring River Health – Example from a Tropical Snow Fed River. “Annals of Biological Research 2 (5): 432-43. Bayer, Rabia. 2013. “Drinking Water as a Source of Income.”Lund University. Bergquist, R, and L Rinaldi.2010.”Health Research Based on Geospatial Tools: A Timely Approach In a Changing Environment.” Journal of Helminthology 84 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1017/S0022149X09990484.

BPS. 2016. Kabupaten Tanah Bumbu Dalam Angka. Batulicin: Badan pusat Statistik Kabupaten Tanah Bumbu. Clasen, Thomas.2015.”Household Water Treatment And Save Storage to Prevent Diarrheal Disease in Developing Countries.”Current Environmental Health Reports 2 (1): 69-74. doi:10.1007/s40572-014-033-9.

Dewan, Ashraf M., Robert Corner, Masahiro Hashizume, and Emmanuel T. Ongge. 2013. “Typhoid Fever and Its Association with Environmental Factors in the Dhaka Metropolitan Area of Bangladesh:A Spatial and Time-Series Approach.”PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 7 (1); 12-15.doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001998.

Eisenberg, Joseph N S, James C. Scott, and Tratvis Porco. 2007. "integrating Disease Control Strategies: Balancing Water Sanitation and Hvgiene Interventions to Reduce Diarrheal Disease Burden." Arnerican Joumal of PublicHealth 91 (5): 846-52. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.086207.

Gerry. Alec C. A Lam, and C R Shelton. 2011. "Evaluation of Surveilance Methods for Monitoring House Fly Abundance and Activity on Large Commercial Operations." Journal Articie. J.Econ.Entomol 104 (3): 1093-1102. doi:10.1603/EC10393.

Haider. Joshua, and Nazrul Islam. 2015. "Water Pollution and Its Impact on the Human Health." Journal of Environment and Human 2 (1): 36--46.doi: 10.15764/EH.2015.01005.

Hapsari, Dwi, Ika Dharmayanti, and Suprapt ini. 2013. "Pola Penyakit ISPA Dan Diare Berdasarkan Gambaran Rumah Sehat Di lndonesia Dalam Kurun Waktu Sepuluh Tahun Terakhir ( Ten-Year Trend of Acute Respiratory Infection ( ARI ) and Diarrheal Diseases Based on Healthy Houses in Indonesia )."Buletin PenelitianSistem Kesehatan 16 (4): 363-72. http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.idlinder.php/hsr/article/view/3543/3499.

Harley, JP, and LM Prescott. 2002. Laboratory Exercises in Microbiology. Fifth Edit. The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Hassan, B. A. 2012. "Importance of Personal Hygiene. " PharmaceuticaAnal Acta 3 (8):4172. doi: 10.4172/21 53-2435. 1000e125.

Jarquin, Claudia, Benjamin F. Arnold, Fredy Mufloz, Beatriz Lopez, Victoria M. Cuellar, Andrew Thornton, Jaymin Patel, et al. 2016. "Populaticn Density,. Poor Sanitation. and Enteric Infections in Nueva Santa Rosa, Guatemala." American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hiegiene 94 (4): 912-19, doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0555.

Kemenkes. 2008. "Riskesdas 2007 (Laporan Nasional)." Report. Jakarta: Badan L.itbang Kesehatan. 2014. "Riskesdas l003."' Jakarta.

Kulldorff, Martin. 2015. SaTScan UserGuide V9.4.

Lamberti. Laura M. Christa L Fischer Walker, Adi Noiman, Cesar Victora. and Robelt E Black. 2011. "'Breastfeeding and the Risk. for Diarrhea Morbidity, and Mortality.'' BMC Public Health 11 Suppl 3 (Suppl 3): 1. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-S3-S15.

Mohsin, .Muhammad, Samira Safdar, Farial Asghar, and Farrukh Jamal. 2013. "Assessment of Drinking Witer Quality and Its lmpact on Residents Health in Bahawalpur City." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 3 (l5): 1l4-28. http://www.ijhssnet. Com/journal/Vol_3_No_ 15_Agust_2013/14.pdf.

Nuhung, Hijaz, and Nita Rahayu. 2012. "Spatial Modeling of STH Diseases Vulnerability Based on Remote Sensing and GIS in Pagatan, Tanah Bumbu Pemodelan Spasial Zona Kerentanan Penvakit STH Berdasarkan Aplikasi Penginderaan Jauh Dan SIG Di Pagatan Kab . Tanah Bumbu."Jurnal Buski 4(2): 93-101.

Overgaard, Hans J., Neal Alexander, Maria lnes Matiz, Juan Felipe Jaramillo. Victol Alberto Olano" Sandra Vargas. Diana Sermiento. Audrey Lenhart, and Thor Axel Stenstrom. 2016. "A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Diarrheal Disease and Dengue Entemological Risk Factors in Rural Primary Schools in Colornbia." PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases l0 (ll): e0005106. doi:l0.l37l/journal.pntd.0005106.

Semba, RD, S de Pee, Kraerner, K Sun, A Thorne-Lyman. R Moench-Pfanner, M Sari, N Akhter.and MW Bloem. 2009. "Purchase oi Drinking Water Is Associated with Increased Child Morbidiry and Mortaliry,.among Urban Slum-Dwelling Families in Indonesia." lnt J Hyg Environ Health. 212 (4): 387-97 . doi:10.1016/.i. ijheh.2008.09.00 1 .

Sima. Laura C. Mavur M Desai, Kathleen M McCarty, and Menachem Elimelech, 2012. " Relationship between Use of Water from Comunity-Scale Water Treatment Refill Kiosks and Childhood Diarrhea in Jakarta." the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Higiene 87 (6): 979-84.doi : 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0224.

Siziya, S, a S Mauula, and E Rudatsikira. 2013.“Correlates of Diarrhoea among Children below The Age of 5 Years in Sudan. “African Health Sciences 13 (2): 376-83. doi:10.4314/ahs.Vl3i2.26.

Song, Jinxi, Dandong Cheng, Qi Li, Xingjun He, Youngqing Long, and Bo Zhang.2015. “An Evaluation of River Health for the Weihe River In Shaanxi Province, China.” Advances in Meteorology 2015.doi:10.1155/2015/476020.

Tan, S. L., P. L. Cheng, H. K. Soon, H. Ghazali, and N. A. Mahyudin.2013. “A Qualitative Study on Personal Hygiene Knowledge and Practices among Food Handlers at Selected Primary Schools in Klang Valley Area, Selangor, Malaysia.”International Food Research Journal 20 (1): 71-76.

The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)/World Health Organization (WHO). 2009. Diarrhoea: Why Children Are Still Dying and What Can Be Done.

Traore, Doule, Ibrahim Sy, Jurg Utzinger, Michael Epprecht, Ives M. Kangne, Lo Baidy, Peter Odermatt, Ousmane Faye, Gueladio Cisses, and Marcel Tanner. 2013. “Water Quality and Health in a Sahelian Semi-Arid Urban Context: An Integrated Geographical Approach in Nouakchott, Mauritania.”Geospatial Health 8 (1):53-63.doi:10.4081/gh.2013.54.

Vandepitte, J. J Yerhaegen, K Engbaek, P Rohner, P Piot, C C Heuck, Diana Susanto. and Lyana Setiawan. 2011. Basic Labolatory Procedures in Clinical Bacteriology. Book. Edited by Diana Susanto. PROSEDUR LABORAIORIUM DASAR UNTUK BAKTERIOLOGI KLINIS. 2nded. Jakarta: EGC.

WHO.2008.”Health Situation in the South East Asia Region 2001-2007.”46.No.46.2008.India.

Wulandari, Astri. 2007. “Kualitas Bakteriologis Air Minum.”Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional 2 (2):
58-63.
Published
2020-03-06
How to Cite
DickyAndiarsa, Ika Setianingsih, & Sri Sulasmi. (2020). Kebijakan Pengendalian Diare Berdasarkan Analisis Spacial Faktor Penyebab Diare di Kabupaten Tanah Bumbu. Jurnal Kebijakan Pembangunan, 12(1), 9-21. Retrieved from http://jkpjournal.com/index.php/menu/article/view/119